Preliminary Data from Real-World Study Demonstrate T-cell Testing Outperforms Antibody Testing in Identifying Past SARS-CoV-2 Infections
– Findings support upcoming launch of T-Detect™ COVID, first T-cell test for novel coronavirus
– Data support mounting evidence that measuring T-cells is necessary to fully characterize immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 across the population
– Additional supporting data to be published soon
It is likely that some people may never develop antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 because they can resolve the infection early and effectively with T cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that antibodies appear to wane over time¹, while virus-specific T cells have been shown to persist for at least six months². This new study adds to mounting evidence that T cells, along with antibodies, may serve as an important correlate of immune protection and can help provide a more complete picture of the duration of immunity to the virus following an infection or administration of a vaccine.
“These data add to the growing body of real-world evidence that the T cell plays a critical role in immunity to SARS-CoV-2,” said
An initial study published in Nature in
In a follow-up study of 2,290 residents, including 70 of the 81 who tested positive by PCR, antibody testing with a EUA approved commercial test (IgG) and T-cell testing with Adaptive’s T-Detect Assay for past SARS-CoV-2 infection were performed approximately 60 days after PCR testing. The T-cell assay identified 97% (68/70) of past PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections compared to 77% (54/70) with the antibody test. Notably, 24 of the 70 PCR -positive patients were asymptomatic, highlighting the added sensitivity of T-cell based testing to provide a more accurate representation of past infection in a community. The T-cell response was measured by the overall quantity of T cells as well as the number of unique virus-specific T cells. Convalescent subjects who were symptomatic and hospitalized with COVID-19 had significantly greater T-cell response than asymptomatic subjects, while antibody levels did not correlate with disease severity.
Notably, an additional 45 (2.0%) of PCR-negative participants tested positive with the T-Detect Assay for past SARS-CoV-2 infection. About half of these individuals had reported symptoms before or after PCR testing or a household exposure, indicating the T-cell assay may also identify past infections that had been missed by prior PCR testing.
T-Detect™ is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic test under development for multiple diseases, translating the natural diagnostic capability of T cells into clinical practice. In 2018, Adaptive and Microsoft partnered to build a map of the immune system called the TCR-Antigen Map. This approach uses immunosequencing, proprietary computational modeling, and machine learning to map T-cell receptor sequences to disease-associated antigens for infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. From a simple blood draw, T-Detect will leverage the map to provide an immunostatus for an individual, enabling early disease diagnosis, disease monitoring, and critical insights into immunity. T-Detect COVID will be the first clinical test launched from this collaboration and the first commercially available T cell test designed to detect past SARS-CoV-2 infections. It is expected to launch this fall.
About Adaptive Biotechnologies
Adaptive Biotechnologies is a commercial-stage biotechnology company focused on harnessing the inherent biology of the adaptive immune system to transform the diagnosis and treatment of disease. We believe the adaptive immune system is nature’s most finely tuned diagnostic and therapeutic for most diseases, but the inability to decode it has prevented the medical community from fully leveraging its capabilities. Our proprietary immune medicine platform reveals and translates the massive genetics of the adaptive immune system with scale, precision and speed to develop products in life sciences research, clinical diagnostics and drug discovery. We have two commercial products and a robust clinical pipeline to diagnose, monitor and enable the treatment of diseases such as cancer, autoimmune conditions and infectious diseases. Our goal is to develop and commercialize immune-driven clinical products tailored to each individual patient. For more information, please visit adaptivebiotech.com and follow us on www.twitter.com/adaptivebiotech.
Forward Looking Statements
This press release contains forward-looking statements that are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to management. All statements contained in this release other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements.
These statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, including statements regarding T-Detect™ and its launch, potential commercial acceptance, or clinical utility, either with respect to COVID-19 or other disease states. These risks, uncertainties and other factors are described under "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and elsewhere in the documents we file with the
Carrie Mendivil, Gilmartin Group
¹ Ward, et al.medRxiV preprint, 2020
² Zuo, et al. bioRxiV preprint, 2020
³ Lavezzo, et al. Nature, 2020
Source: Adaptive Biotechnologies